How To Write in Third Person Omniscient PoV
by Alex Cabal
Learning how to write in third person omniscient PoV lets you do many things with your story that you wouldn’t normally be able to do were you to use a limited, multiple or other points of view. Third person omniscient PoV lets you move freely through time and space, gives more information in a smaller amount of time, and yes, even shows what multiple people are thinking within a scene.
This guide will explore what third person point of view omniscient is and how to write in third person omniscient PoV. This article will provide a definition, explore the nuance of third person omniscient PoV vs other points of view, and discuss writing tips and common errors that can help a writer successfully use omniscient PoV to craft and tell their story.
Third Person Omniscient definition
What is a third-person omniscient point of view? The third person omniscient narrator is not a character within the story but is positioned as an all knowing narrator—an external narrative voice that provides a “god-like” or “birds eye view” perspective of the events within the story.
Writing from an omniscient third person perspective allows a writer to switch between one character’s point of view to another using the narrator’s persona and voice as a vehicle to deliver essential information to the reader. This allows the writer to show an interpretation of events that occur within the story for each unique character. The omniscient pov will require the writer to create a distinct voice for the narrator’s omniscient perspective that differs and is distinguishable from the character’s voices to assist the reader and avoid any confusion.
Crafting Language and Story
Writing in third person omniscient should include the use of characters’ name and pronouns. Third person omniscient words may include pronouns such as he, she, they, it, as well as character names to indicate which character’s actions, thoughts, and feelings are being described. If the writer so chooses, they can also address the reader directly within a 3rd person omniscient point of view by using the narrator’s crafted voice.
An example of addressing the reader and audience may include “breaking the fourth wall”. This may be crafted either by addressing the audience with a direct approach:
“Dear reader, this sad tale tells the outcome of poor choices made between star-crossed lovers, Dave and his faithful companion Betty.”
Or a less direct approach where the narrator doesn’t necessarily “inform” the reader that they are being addressed, but provides information as an aside:
“Dave’s choices caused the calamity but fear not, he will make it in the end, though unfortunately, the same can’t be said for his faithful companion Betty.”
A distinct advantage of learning how to write in third person omniscient PoV is the opportunity to share knowledge and details of the plot and story that the characters may not be aware of, through the use of the omniscient third-person narrator’s voice. This lets the writer give the reader insights that may foster tension or foreshadowing in the story without the characters’ direct knowledge.
A deeper understanding of the nuances of Third Person Omniscient PoV
Learning how to write in third person omniscient PoV includes making a few choices for how you want to position the narrator, craft the omniscient narrator voice, and move the story by sharing scope and details with the reader. Consider the following details to learn more about omniscient objective pov, omniscient subjective PoV, as well the difference between third-person limited and third-person omniscient.
Objective vs Subjective Omniscient
The omniscient PoV is typically divided into two categories: objective (also known as the “dramatic” PoV or “fly on the wall” PoV), and subjective.
An objective omniscient PoV is when the narrator doesn’t have a “voice”. The narrator is present, but they’re “invisible”; they don’t have a personality. The narrator relates the events as they happen, but doesn’t offer any opinions on the events.
The objective omniscient PoV is like a camera following the characters around, showing actions and dialogue, and not entering into the internal thoughts of the characters.
Since objective PoV can only show actions and dialogue, but never internal thoughts, it’s almost entirely “show” (as opposed to “tell”), except for some occasional exposition. Instead of describing how any of the characters felt, characters would have to “show” it by their actions.
When writing in the objective PoV, you should avoid all verbs that convey emotional behavior internally, such as “felt”, “assumed”, and any adjectives and adverbs that relate to emotions (sad, happy, angry, etc.). The reason for this is that it tells people in the narrative what the characters are feeling or thinking. Remember, think of the objective PoV like a camera. It can only show what the characters are doing, and can’t enter directly into their minds.
That said, it’s perfectly okay to say something along the lines of:
“Hurray!” Little Annie said, smiling happily as she skipped down the road.
The use of the word “happily” in the sentence above is perfectly acceptable in objective PoV, as the narrator is commenting on her body language instead of how she feels internally.
An incorrect way of writing about emotions in the objective omniscient PoV would be something like this:
“Hurray!” Little Annie said, feeling a warm happiness overtake her at the thought of having dinner at the neighbor’s house.
In this second example, the narrator is commenting on what Annie feels internally rather than what she expresses externally. Note the use of the “don’t use” word: “feeling”.
It wouldn’t be completely incorrect to use the word “thought” in the context of the above example. However, it should be inferred by her body language or tone or voice that Annie is thinking it, as opposed to actually stating to the reader what she’s feeling at that moment in time.
Consider this other example of writing objective PoV:
Jerry stood at the edge of the bridge and stared down at the icy waters below. He took out his wallet and glanced at his business card.
He tore it in two and whispered, “Twenty years of my life wasted.”
Tears streamed down his face as he stepped into the air and plunged a hundred feet to his doom.
The skyscraper where his company used to be situated loomed in the distance. Inside, there was only silence.
In this objective PoV example, we don’t enter into Jerry’s thoughts, and we don’t directly know his emotions, although we can tell what they are by his actions—ripping his business card and saying “Twenty years of my life waste” out loud and describing the tears streaming down his face.
Now let’s compare that with an incorrect version of objective PoV:
Jerry stood at the edge of the bridge, staring down at the icy waters below. It had been a week since the market crash, since his company went bust.
Twenty years of my life are gone, Jerry thought.
He looked up at the skyscraper in the distance, where his company used to be situated. He felt a rumbling in his chest and tears streamed down his face.
In the water, he saw his salvation. His only escape.
This is an incorrect way to write an omniscient objective PoV because the narrator tells us what Jerry is feeling and delves into Jerry’s thoughts, rather than showing his thoughts and feelings with character dialogue and actions. This example would be considered a subjective omniscient PoV.
A subjective omniscient PoV is one where there’s a narrator with a strong voice who can show the internal thoughts of the characters within the scene.
Some say that subjective omniscient PoV can only follow a single character the entire time. This is not the case. It can certainly focus on a single character at a time—such as in Frank Herbert’s Dune—but that doesn’t always have to happen.
When the subjective omniscient narrator is telling the story of a particular character, the narrator can still get the insights and internalizations of characters other than the main character. Whether or not the omniscient narrator follows a single character makes no difference; it’ll work more or less the same.
The most important thing when it comes to subjective omniscient PoV is that the narrator has a strong “voice” and that all emotions in the story are filtered through the narrator’s words, not the characters’. Otherwise, you’ll find yourself head-hopping.
Third Person Limited vs Omniscient PoV
The omniscient PoV can seem indistinguishable from third person limited, or even third person multiple at times, particularly when it comes to describing actions undertaken by the characters and scenes where there’s heavy dialogue. Take a look at this example, where omniscient and third-person limited/multiple are indistinguishable from each other:
The house was ablaze, so Jack and Jill hurried up the hill to fetch a few pails of water. Jack filled one up and handed it to Jill.
“Hurry up and put out the fire,” Jack said.
Jill nodded and dashed down the hill, the water sloshing in the bucket.
Jack filled another bucket with well water before he dashed after her.
This scene walks through the actions of the characters and their dialogue, and as such, could be from either an omniscient narrator’s PoV or by Jack’s third-person PoV.
To firmly decide what PoV this story is written in, we’d need more of the story to provide context. In extreme cases, it can take multiple chapters to finally know whether or not the story is written in third person omniscient or a third person limited/multiple.
For example, there are stories where the PoV character changes with each scene, but each scene only shows a single PoV character. This would mean the story is in the third person multiple. But every so often a scene would pop up where there are two PoV characters or the narrator telling the reader what the characters in the scene are thinking—and that’s when we’d call it the omniscient point of view.
Omniscient vs Limited Omniscient PoV
The omniscient PoV has many advantages over third-person limited. Perhaps the greatest advantage between third-person limited and omniscient, is that omniscient PoV allows the author to give more information to the reader in a shorter length of time. In third-person limited, we’d need to be “shown” what the characters are like, as opposed to third-person omniscient PoV, where the narrator can simply “tell” us. Omniscient PoV benefits from a larger scope than limited and allows the author to say more things about the characters’ situations than the limited PoV can.
Consider this example, where the reader can grasp the entire situation in just three paragraphs:
Jonathan—a weak but honest man—entered the restaurant, and found Margie waiting at a back table. He notified the waiter and sat down next to Margie, playing with his tie to keep down his nerves. Margie was a harsh woman, and it was impossible for Jonathan to predict how she would react to his news.
The company Margie was heavily invested in had been struggling for a while. If it collapsed, she would lose nearly a hundred million dollars. She noticed Jonathan’s nervousness and frowned.
Unfortunately for her, the worst-case scenario had come true. Jonathan was merely the messenger.
If this same information were to be conveyed in a third-person limited PoV, it’d take many more words to relay the information from a single character’s PoV. For example, instead of saying “Jonathan was a weak but honest man”, either Margie would have to describe him as such and allude to things that had happened with him in the past, or Jonathan would have to “show” his personality with his internalizations and/or dialogue as he sits down for the meeting.
Another advantage omniscient PoV has is that it allows the author to take the reader anywhere—or any time—with the snap of the finger, and to explain everything that’s going on without using a character as an intermediary.
The limited PoV restricts the point of view to a single character at a time within a single scene, greatly narrowing the tools the author can use to tell the story. Considering that omniscient PoV is much more flexible than limited, one might expect that omniscient would be the predominant PoV in fiction. Who wouldn’t want to use godlike powers to tell a story?
But it turns out that most fiction written in the past century—novels, in particular— is written in third person limited PoV. Though omniscient PoV can do more with less, limited is more common because omniscient sacrifices one of the most important things in fiction: it doesn’t allow the reader to get close to and sympathize with the characters and the situations they find themselves in. This is because of the distance created by seeing the story from the omniscient narrator’s point of view instead of the character’s direct perspective.
In the example above, Margie is described as “a harsh woman”. This is worded from the narrator’s point of view, as it’s unlikely Margie would portray herself that way (should the passage have been rewritten from her point of view). If we were writing in third person limited it’d take a few paragraphs of showing her character (with her actions and/or internalizations) to get the point across, instead of having the narrator tell the reader outright. In the process of forming their own conclusions about characters, readers will form strong attachments.
Common Third Person Omniscient PoV mistakes to avoid
There are a lot of advantages to Third Person Omniscient PoV, but if you look at fiction novels written in the 20th century, most are written in Third Person Limited. Why is that?
Part of the reason is that third-person omniscient PoV is considered one of the hardest PoVs to master because there are a lot of ways you can easily go wrong and make the text confusing.
First, many new writers trying to use third-person omniscient PoV make the mistake of “head-hopping”. This often happens because a writer wants to show what many or all of the characters within a scene are thinking, and then simply writes it down as if it were third-person multiple instead of omniscient PoV. This will come out as a jumbled and confusing pile of perspectives mixed together and all presented at once.
Second, many don’t quite grasp the differences between an objective perspective and a subjective perspective, and how to use them to their advantage.
Third, third-person limited (or multiple) can be indistinguishable at times from third-person omniscient PoV, which can make things very confusing.
Then comes the big drawbacks of using third person omniscient—the distance between the characters and the reader that’s inherent in the use of an omniscient narrator. This is something that many writers struggle to overcome.
So now that we’ve laid down the pitfalls that many writers fall into when learning how to write in third-person omniscient PoV, let’s explore the common problems with advice on how to avoid them.
Head-hopping and consistency
Often when writers attempt to write a story from the omniscient PoV, they instead end up with something called “head-hopping”.
Head-hopping is a mistake that writers usually make because they want to be able to show what each character within a scene is thinking. The omniscient narrator can indeed do that, but should do so with the narrator’s words, not the character’s. Let’s take a look at this third-person omniscient sentence example:
Dave sat up on his surfboard and looked towards the shore. Two people, John and Brian, were paddling up to the line up. “Nice day,” Dave said.
Dave looked out to the shoulder, a look of worry on his face. John was afraid of the shallow reef in the impact zone, and tended to avoid the peak in these situations. However, at this particular spot, even though the waves were smaller out in the shoulder, the reef out there was much shallower, and Dave worried about John wiping out after a take off. However, Dave didn’t need to worry, as John had decided to brave the peak.
Brian arrived at the line up and sat on his board, as they waited for the lull of the waves to be over. Behind him, John slipped into the water, and pulled on Brian’s leash from beneath him, making Brian lose balance and fall into the water.
“What the hell?” Brian said, as he floated back to the surface. John chuckled, and Dave grinned. A large wave began to form in the water, moving towards them. Dave gave John a taunting wink as he asked, “you gonna take the first wave of the set?”
In this example, we can read what the characters in the scene are thinking. However, we never completely enter into their PoV. Their thoughts are always filtered through the subjective omniscient narrator.
The next example will show an incorrect head-hoping version of the same scene:
Dave sat up on his surfboard and looked down towards the shore. Two people, John and Brian, were paddling up to the line up. “Nice day,” Dave said.
He wondered if John was going to stay out on the shoulder instead of the peak. Dave knew he was afraid of the shallow reef in the impact zone. Although the wave was smaller out in the shoulder, the reef was much shallower, and Dave worried about John wiping out after trying to take off. However, Dave didn’t need to worry as John had decided to brave the peak. I’ll have to watch him, Dave thought.
“No need to watch out for me, I’ll be fine,” John said. Brian realized there was a lull in the waves, and sat on his board. Bored on my board, he thought. John slipped quietly into the water behind him, and pulled on Brian’s leash, making him lose balance and fall into the water.
“What the hell?” Brian said as he floated back to the surface. John chuckled, and Dave grinned. They could see a large wave forming in the water, moving towards them. Dave gave John a taunting wink as he asked, “you gonna take the first wave of the set?”
Here we have two mistakes. The first mistake is head-hopping: we move between Dave’s, John’s, and Brian’s PoV within the scene. While this is technically considered a form of omniscient PoV, head-hopping is a less-than-ideal way of doing it. As the example shows, this technique can be confusing for the reader.
In this second example, we know what both of the characters are thinking and doing, but the scene is written from Dave’s, John’s, and Brian’s perspectives, not the omniscient narrator’s.
The second mistake is a common problem a writer may encounter when writing in omniscient PoV: the characters have the information they shouldn’t know—unless they’re psychic. An example of this is when John tells Dave that he didn’t need to watch out for him.
When writing omniscient pov, a writer must be very careful not to give characters information that the narrator knows but that the character couldn’t know. This may come off as jarring to the reader as well as disrupt the flow of the story because characters somehow “know” something they shouldn’t be able to.
To write a scene where we know the thoughts and actions of most—if not all—of the characters generally requires the omniscient narrator to have a strong voice so the narrative doesn’t descend into head-hopping in indistinguishable multiple third-person perspectives.
Narrative distance from characters
Third-person omniscient PoV naturally distances the reader from the characters and the situations within the plot because there’s an “otherworldly” voice telling the story. The voice knows everything that’s going on, as well as —in the case of subjective narrators— the fact that the omniscient narrator can sometimes comment on the events in the story. As previously mentioned, an omniscient narrator can even address a reader directly, such as the “dear reader” comments made in Charles Dickens and Jane Austen novels, for example.
Distance from characters in a story isn’t necessarily bad. It’s for precisely this reason that so much fiction in the humor genre is written in an omniscient voice—because it provides the distance from the character required for comedic effect.
For example, in the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, Douglas Adams often puts the characters in situations where reactions would have been horrific instead of humorous, should the situations have been written in a closer character perspective.
The following examples show how the distance from the characters works for comedic effect:
Little Allison had stood in the corner of the room, staring at the wall for hours on end. This was her punishment for stealing cookies from the cookie jar. The length of it took a grave toll on her stubby 4-year-old legs, making them shake with both exhaustion, and excitement.
The harshest of tyrants and the cruelest of criminals would have deemed the penalty inflicted upon this young child an indecent abuse, and certainly not equal to the crime of stealing a cookie.
Finally, after all that time standing, little Allison gave out a whimper as a tear fell down her face. She could no longer bear it.
“Allison, your 15 minute time out is up,” her mother said.
In this example, you can see that because of the narrator’s comments and the distance the story has from the characters, the story turns out to be a humorous piece.
Should we have gone deeper into Allison’s PoV, the story would have most likely had a very different tone. You may have had a stronger sense of Allison’s whining and impatience, instead of the narrator’s darker look on the situation. You might also notice that in this example the narrator is unreliable (Allison had not been forced to stand for hours). This use of an unreliable narrator is something made possible by the use of an omniscient PoV.
The main reason why there is distance between the reader and the character when a story is written in subjective omniscient PoV is that the characters are being judged by the narrator, not by the reader. The subjective omniscient narrator often comes across in the guise of a friend gossiping with the reader about the characters as they journey through the story.
The art of overcoming narrative distance with Omniscient PoV
Sometimes authors writing in subjective omniscient PoV will try to make the readers connect with the narrator instead of with the characters. When this happens, the way the story is told becomes just as important as the story itself.
The distance between the reader and the characters when a story is written with an objective narrator is even greater than with a subjective narrator. In an objective omniscient perspective, the narrator doesn’t “judge” the characters for the reader. However, since the reader only sees what the characters say and do and not what they think, it becomes like watching a film. You can see the characters on screen, you can see who they are and what they’re doing, but the screen is always between you and the characters. You can never step into their shoes and see the story from their vantage point, or understand what they’re thinking at any given moment.
It isn’t impossible to overcome the distance between reader and character when writing in omniscient PoV. That’s most obvious when reading traditional fairy tales, which are usually written from an omniscient point of view. But readers will most often sympathize with the theme, characters, and the situations as concepts, rather than connecting with the characters as people.
For instance, in the story Little Red Riding Hood, the main character is a little girl. She represents innocence and helplessness. The obstacle is a predatory wolf who’s stalking her. Readers will immediately sympathize with the main character not because of who she is (as a person), but what she is (an innocent little girl), and the situation that she’s been put in (a wolf is hunting her).
In short, getting the reader to sympathize with the characters in the story is part of the art of the omniscient perspective. Sometimes it can require creative solutions, but don’t be discouraged if you run into trouble. It takes both practice and a strong understanding of the relationship between the narrator, the characters, and the reader.
Pros and cons of writing in Third Person Omniscient PoV
Consider the following pros and cons of using third-person omniscient PoV to tell a story.
Pros of using Omniscient PoV
The narrator has godlike knowledge, allowing the reader to know everything going on at any time.
It doesn’t limit the author to a single PoV character in a scene.
It allows the author to provide information in a more natural way.
It can provide a smoother transition into action.
Cons of using Omniscient PoV
It’s more presentational, resulting in distance from the characters.
Emotions are harder to convey to the reader.
It tends to be more “tell” than “show”, which can lead to massive info-dumps if you aren’t careful.
The narrator’s godlike knowledge means that tension can evaporate, resulting in a story that feels dull.
Tips for how to write in Third Person Omniscient Point of View
Writing in third person omniscient PoV allows the writer to craft a distinct and authoritative voice that serves as an all-knowing guide for the reader—sharing details and moving the story in a potentially cinematic way.While typically books written in the third person omniscient may distance characters from the reader, the reader may connect more deeply with the narrator and the theme of the story at large.
Here are some tips for how to write in third person omniscient PoV:
The narrator should have a voice distinct from the characters, either by objectively telling the story in a cinematic way, or subjectively providing judgment on the occurrences within the plot. In doing so, the writer should take care not to outrightly identify or characterize the narrator with details such as a name or a backstory.
Avoid supplying information to a character that the character otherwise shouldn’t know. An example may include a character having direct insight into another character’s personal thoughts or feelings. All information that characters can gather or know should be given from a source within the plot of the story.
Use the narrator to share information with the reader that the characters within the story do know. This can assist in building tension and dramatic irony within the story, but be mindful not to overshare with hints and foreshadowing that removes plot tension.
When using a third person omniscient narrator, avoid overusing elements like flashbacks, long asides, or lectures in the narrator’s voice that may pull the reader away from connecting with the story.
Ensure that consistent dialogue tags and character names are used to avoid any confusion, and avoid head-hopping within scenes.
Craft signals and transitions within or between scenes to show the reader which character the third person omniscient PoV narrator is describing. This may also include having a character take an action, and the narrator describing the thoughts and feelings of that character.
Remain consistent in your choice to write in the third person omniscient and consider the balance of how different character experiences are being represented within the story.
Don’t forget to follow the golden rule of creative writing—show, don’t tell. The third-person omniscient narrator can easily tell a reader what is happening with a character, but excellent writing should show character development and details through narration.
Is Third Person Omniscient best for your story?
So now that we’ve discussed the common pitfalls and how to deal with them, is third-person omniscient the best PoV for your story?
Take a look at your story. If it’s character-driven, then omniscient PoV might not be the best bet. Since the story stands mostly on the shoulders of the characters and requires the reader to make a strong connection with them, third person limited or first person might be a better choice.
If your story is plot-driven and wide in scope, then narrating with an omniscient PoV might be an attractive option. That’s because you need to get the points across quicker, and can move across time and space to bring out just how wide the story’s scope is.
Another thing to think about is your grasp on the omniscient PoV. If you aren’t confident in your ability in using it, then you should get some practice first. It’d be best if you wrote a few short stories to gauge your ability.
Whatever PoV you end up choosing, it must ultimately allow the reader to be able to sit down and engage with the story without getting confused or lost.
Examples of Third Person Omniscient PoV to learn from
While practicing writing omniscient PoV in short stories is helpful to understand the nuance of how to write in third person omniscient PoV, another way to become more familiar with this PoV is to read other works that have successfully employed this perspective. We’ve already shown you a few omniscient point of view examples, but consider this additional list of stories written in third person omniscient PoV: